Analysis of current situation of electric vehicle controller and drive motor in China

Xiaobian analyzes the development trend of electric vehicle controllers and drive motors by arranging relevant articles on electric vehicle controllers to help you better understand electric vehicle controllers.

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Electric vehicle controller example

Electric vehicle controller - vehicle controller

The development of the vehicle controller (electric vehicle controller) includes software and hardware design. The core software is generally developed by the OEM, and the hardware and the underlying driver software can be selected by the auto parts manufacturer.

1) Foreign development

(1) Foreign vehicle controller technology tends to mature Most foreign auto companies have accumulated sufficient in the field of electric vehicles, the control strategy has high maturity, and the vehicle has good fuel economy. The controller products have proved their reliability through market inspection.

(2) Automotive electronic components companies are actively developing R&D and manufacturing of complete vehicle controllers. Various automotive electronic components giants, such as Delphi, China, and Bosch Group, have developed and produced vehicle controllers. Some car design companies also provide complete vehicle controller technology solutions for automakers, such as AVL, FEV, RICARDO, etc. There are also many successful cases in the field of electric vehicle controllers.

(3) The standardization of controllers with standardized controllers has attracted the attention of relevant companies. The global automotive manufacturer, component suppliers and electronics, semiconductor and software systems companies have jointly established the Automotive Open Systems Architecture Alliance to form the AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) standard, simplifying the development process and making the ECU software reusable. Is a trend in controller development.

2) China's development status

In the "863" plan, China's vehicle controllers are mainly based on universities, such as Tsinghua University, Tongji University, Beijing Institute of Technology, etc., and have initially mastered the software and hardware development capabilities of vehicle controllers. The product features are relatively complete, basically meet the needs of electric vehicles, and have been applied to sample cars and small batch products. At present, all manufacturers basically master the development technology of vehicle controllers, but the technology accumulation is limited and the levels are uneven. China's controller hardware level has a certain gap with foreign countries, and the industrialization capacity is relatively insufficient. Most companies are more inclined to choose foreign vehicle controller hardware suppliers when they introduce mass-produced electric vehicle products. In addition, the controller's basic hardware, development tools, etc. basically rely on imports.

Generally speaking, there is still a big gap between the technical level and industrialization capability of controller products and foreign countries.

3) The main problems of China's vehicle controller (electric vehicle controller)

(1) Most of the application software stays in the function implementation, and the software diagnostic function, the vehicle safety control strategy, and the monitoring function are all to be optimized and improved.

(2) China's electric vehicles are in the stage of R&D and demonstration operation of prototype vehicles, and the basic database is imperfect, which affects the design level of vehicle controllers. Some companies can introduce related equipment and software according to the V-type development process (a software and product development tool), and generally use the general development tools for secondary development.

(3) Domestic enterprises can complete the hardware structure design of the vehicle controller. However, due to the weak integration of China's chip, the manufacturing capability is poor, and there is still much room for improvement in reliability and stability.

Drive motor type and its development

The drive motor is a key component of the electric vehicle and directly affects the power and economy of the vehicle. The drive motor mainly includes a DC motor and an AC motor. At present, electric motors are widely used in electric vehicles. The drive motor mainly includes asynchronous motor, switched reluctance motor, permanent magnet motor (including brushless DC motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor)

1) Development status of drive motors in China

(1) AC asynchronous motor drive system China has established a development platform with independent intellectual property rights asynchronous motor drive system, forming a development, manufacturing, testing and service system for small batch production; product performance basically meets the needs of the entire vehicle, high-power asynchronous Motor systems have been widely used in various types of electric buses.

(2) The switched reluctance motor drive system has formed an optimized design and independent research and development capability. By rationally designing the motor structure and improving the control technology, the product performance basically meets the requirements of the whole vehicle; at present, some products have been equipped with demonstration vehicles and the effect is good.

(3) Brushless DC motor drive system Through reasonable design and improved control technology, domestic enterprises have effectively improved the performance of brushless DC motor products and basically met the needs of electric vehicles; they have initially possessed mechatronics design capabilities.

(4) The permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system has formed certain R&D and production capacity, and developed different series of products, which can be applied to all kinds of electric vehicles; some technical indicators of the products are close to the international advanced level, but the overall level is still certain with foreign countries. gap.

(5) Permanent magnet motor materials The main materials of permanent magnet motors are NdFeB magnets and silicon steel. Some companies have mastered the overall magnetization technology of magnetizing the rotor of the motor before it is assembled.

(6) Key components of the motor controller The position/speed sensor used in the motor controller is mostly a rotary transformer. Currently, imported products are basically used. Some companies in China have the R&D production capacity of the rotary transformer, but the accuracy and reliability of the product still have a gap with foreign countries. .

2) The development trend of motor for vehicles is as follows

(1) Permanent magnetization of the motor body

Permanent magnet motors have the advantages of high torque density, high power density, high efficiency, and high reliability. China has the world's most abundant rare earth resources, so high-performance permanent magnet motor is an important development direction of China's vehicle drive motor.

(2) Digitalization of motor control

The emergence of dedicated chips and digital signal processors has promoted the digitization of motor controllers, improved the control accuracy of motor systems, and effectively reduced the system size.

(3) Motor system integration

Integration with the electromechanical integration (motor-to-engine integration or motor-to-gearbox integration) and controllers helps reduce the weight and size of the drive system and reduces system manufacturing costs.

The main problems of electric vehicle controllers and drive motors in China

(1) The research and development capabilities of motor raw materials and controller core components are weak, relying on imports, such as silicon steel sheets, motor high-speed bearings, position/speed sensors, IGBT modules, etc. The high cost of imported products affects the industrialization of motor systems.

(2) The level of electromechanical integration of China's automotive motors is quite different from that of foreign countries. The controller has low integration and relatively large volume and weight.

(3) China's automotive motor system is still in its infancy, the manufacturing process is backward, and there is no automated production line, resulting in poor product reliability and consistency. The scale of industrialization is small and the cost is high.

(4) At present, the standards for electric vehicle drive motor systems introduced by the state are few and not perfect. For example, different types of motor systems use the same test standard, lacking reliability and durability evaluation methods.

Performance indicators to be paid attention to when purchasing an electric vehicle controller

Ambient temperature, ambient humidity, altitude

Overload capability machine efficiency acceleration and deceleration time

Initial output voltage start and stop control system

Control system power supply panel display panel operation

Control mode

Power unit protection (overvoltage, undervoltage, input phase loss, drive, overtemperature, communication, etc.)

System protection (inverter output overload, output short circuit, cooling fan failure alarm, door switch interlock protection, transformer overheat alarm, transformer overheat trip)

Digital input switch output analog input

Analog output communication interface communication protocol

Device internal grounding resistance cooling method protection level

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