How was a successful concert sound system designed?

The pop music concert is preceded by an audio recording and a live performance. Pop music is produced by recording, and it is the "cooking" of the music that is "burned out" in the studio. Therefore, pop music concerts need sound for both large and small. The requirement for sound in the live performance of popular music is to reproduce the sound and effect in the pre-made recordings on the spot.

First, the venue selection

In popular music concerts, the primary factor affecting sound quality is the venue, so the choice of venue is an important part of the concert preparation work. The venue requirements for popular music concerts are:

1 Low reverb, low echo and low resonance

Echo indoor venues such as gymnasiums are not suitable for holding popular music concerts, because the echoes and loud resonances make the sounds turbid, the music layering and positioning are unclear, the clarity of the songs is insufficient, the instrument performance is not clear enough, and the audience will feel singing. It will be noisy. Acoustic concert halls and concert halls are also not suitable, as the acoustic processing of concert halls and concert halls is used for traditional orchestra and natural sound bands, while pop music is based on electroacoustics and does not require acoustic treatment. To enhance the volume, enhance the tone or create a sense of space in the hall. Suitable indoor venues for popular music concerts include theatres, opera houses, etc. Suitable outdoor venues include stadiums and some open spaces. The acoustic processing of the theater and the opera house was designed for natural sound, so it has low reverberation, low echo, low resonance and high definition conditions, in line with the venue requirements of popular music concerts.

2 low noise

Second, it is noise from the countertop. In a performance venue where the countertop structure is not strong, when the dancers are beating, the "rumbling" sound on the platen will affect the rhythm and clarity of the music. In addition, electrical noise has a great impact on the sound. Therefore, popular music concerts also require clean power and independent clean ground to reduce electrical noise interference.

Second, the sound system layout

Pop music concerts require a two-box performance layout, a one-box stage, and another vanity auditorium. On the stage is a place where singers or bands perform, and it is the placement point of set and visual art, which is the place where the audience pays attention to the performance.

Pop music concert audio mainly has two systems, one is the auditorium audio system, and the other is the audio return system of the band and singer.

1 acoustic return system

The audio return system mainly combines the singer's songs and instrumental sounds with the needs of individual actors and then returns them to individuals to achieve mutual monitoring, synchronization and grasp of the atmosphere.

For more than half a century, the acoustic return system on the stage has been operated by a dedicated system. The audio equipment is a special return mixer and return speaker. The operating principle is that the actors on the stage can clearly hear the performance of themselves and others. At the same time, the sound of the return system will not affect the audience. The return system basically needs to ensure that every musician has a way back, preferably with headphones; or put a small speaker, the closer to the musician's ear, the better. The singer's conference system is more complicated. Many audio designers will put more than one return speaker in the range of the singer's movement. The returning tuner will send the return signal to the nearest return speaker according to the position of the singer; The returning speakers and microphones on the top should be turned off to reduce interference and noise. In recent years, the application of the wireless back-to-earth headset system has reduced the conflicts and contradictions between the return-transmission system and the auditorium system.

2 auditorium sound system

The audio system of the auditorium is mainly to process the voice of the actors on the stage and send them to the ears of the audience. The layout of the system depends on whether the layout of the stage is a single-sided or three-sided or intermediate platform.

The sound layout of the single-sided table is more imitating the home stereo, and a set of speakers are arranged on both sides of the stage. The multi-channel replay of home stereo and home audio and video systems is designed to be enjoyed by one person sitting in the “emperor position” (the best position). Therefore, the layout of the home stereo in the hall is only sitting in the “emperor’s place”. One person can benefit, and the audience in other seats feel different about their voice. But there is no better solution to this day. Slowly, this not-so-sound sound layout has become the acoustic feature of single-sided pop music concerts. Therefore, in the popular music concerts for more than half a century, the audience is in the mode of watching live performances and listening to home audio.

Three-sided table and intermediate table

The sound layout is more than a set of speakers in front of the audience in front of the platform, Taichung. There are three groups on the three sides. If the stage is in the north, a set of speakers will be set up in the east, south, west, and Taichung. The middle station will be suspended in the east, south, west, and north. A set of speakers. Each group of speakers is mono-reproduced. There are also audio designers who design the speaker layout for stereo. A set of speakers are placed on the left and right sides of the desk to simulate the 2-channel stereo layout of the home audio.

Third, audio function and performance requirements

Any performance that requires audio has an acoustic design. The first task of the sound design of popular music concerts is to plan the performance function of the sound. The songs and performances of the concerts on the stage are made into audio music and technology to make the music in the recordings to the audience's ears. These features have their technical requirements and the conditions that must be met. The technical requirements for a pop concert performance are:

1 The volume is up to 105dB~110dB±3dB.

2 bandwidth 50Hz ~ 16kH.

3 tone

The sound of a pop concert requires two:

a. Clear hierarchy and positioning. This refers to the size of the instrument's sound volume and the sense of position before, after, and to the left and right.

b. The voice of the singer should make the audience feel intimate, that is, the sense of distance. The intimacy (distance) that is said at the venue is the effect of the early delay of the direct sound and the first reflected sound. The shorter the early delay, the better the intimacy of the venue. Pop music concerts are produced by electro-acoustic. If the venue is not intimate enough, the electro-acoustic system can also assist. The intimacy in electroacoustic music lies in the low frequency. For example, a singer uses a unidirectional microphone, and the closer the source is to the microphone, the stronger the low frequency effect. The proximity effect of a unidirectional microphone is a technique used in popular music singing to enhance the intimacy of singing voice. Pop music as a whole pays attention to the balance of high, medium and low frequency, and adjusts according to the type of music. For example, in addition to paying attention to the intimacy of singing, the lyrics should also pay attention to the warmth of the accompaniment music (low frequency effect). In the adjustment system, the "mountain" type equalization plus 3dB ~ 6dB can be added at 100Hz frequency to improve the warmth of the system. This balancing technique can be tried on individual instruments.

4 sense of space

Pop music concerts are electro-acoustic music concerts, and the sense of space does not need to be reflected in the venue, but in the music. This sense of space is artificial and electronically crafted, and is not the same as the spatial sense of traditional classical music recording. The sense of space in traditional classical music recording is the sense of room, that is, the feeling of a small concert hall, a big concert hall, a cathedral or a specific indoor space, while the sense of space of pop music has no specific indoor feeling, it is only auditory. A feeling of effect.

5 coverage

The requirement for audio coverage is that each live audience will enjoy the performance under the same volume, same bandwidth, same tone and the same space effect.

Fourth, the band's audio layout

1 band member location arrangement

When the pop band performed, all the band members performed on stage. The pop drum is placed in the middle of the stage. Because it has other players in front of it, it is usually placed on the platform. Other players such as guitarists and keyboard players are placed on the left and right sides of the platform. The lead singer is placed in the middle of the front of the drum, next to other singers. In a personal concert, the main actors are standing on the stage, and the accompaniment band can be placed on the stage or under the stage. Personal concerts include natural acoustic instruments and electronic instruments. In order to reduce the mutual interference between the instrument and the instrument, the sound designer will specially arrange the position of the player. It is common practice to separate natural acoustic instruments from electronic instruments and electric guitars. Large-volume natural acoustic instruments such as brass tubes are separated from the small-volume natural acoustic instruments; such separations sometimes use transparent plastic soundproof screens.

2 pickup layout

Whether it is a band performance or a personal performance, in addition to the use of microphones in the sound distribution layout, other instruments such as keyboard instruments, electric guitars, etc. are directly input into the mixing console after the effect. Some audio designers add a microphone to the electric guitar loudspeaker to pick up the electroacoustic effect of the real electric guitar from the speaker. The direct output signal or the microphone signal of all the instruments on the stage are sent from the station to the distribution box and split into two. One way is connected to the returning console, and the other is connected to the mixing console of the audience system. The signal sent back to the mixer is processed and mixed and transmitted to the individual monitors of each musician in response to the needs of a musician. The signal from the mixer system of the audience system is processed and mixed and transmitted to the auditorium of the auditorium and then transmitted to the viewer's ear.

In recent years, the sound quality requirements for pop music concert sounds have become higher and higher. In order to meet this requirement, in addition to the application of returning headphones to reduce the interference of the returning sound to the auditorium audio, the application of electronic musical instruments, including electronic drums and electronic orchestras, is also becoming increasingly popular. This will help to eliminate the mutual interference of the microphones placed between the instruments, thereby improving the overall clarity of the singing and the clarity of the instrumental music.

3 Tuner

The tuner's request for pop music concerts is very clear on the requirements of the tuner. At the same time, the volume, tone and balance of the singing and music are adjusted. For each song's instrument distribution, music layout, and the sound effects of each segment, you need to reach the realm of application. The ability to record songs and instrumental music on the album originally passed through the auditorium's sound system and reappear in the audience's ears. This is an ideal target for pop music concert sound design.

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