[Knowledge] How do industrial robots achieve "eyes and hands"

The manufacturing environment of the current manufacturing industry is becoming more complex, personalized and customized. For the needs of robots , both new and traditional industrial robots are pursuing more accurate, perfect and efficient applications to continuously improve. Product quality while achieving lower costs.

When we saw FANUC's sandpaper grinding robots, it was clear that these robots used advanced software technology and intelligent perception systems to give them the same vision and touch as humans. The addition of force sensors and vision sensors to traditional industrial robots makes the robot more adaptable to the current manufacturing environment. So how do industrial robots achieve "eyes and hands"? This article takes the FANUC industrial robot as an example, and reveals the answers to the reader from the following three parts.

First, the hand of industrial robots - haptic system

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The traditional view is that the industrial robotic arm is the robot's hand, but this "manipulator" has no sensory function and is far from the human hand. The industrial robot's haptic system, that is, the installation of a force sensor on a 6-DOF industrial robot, enables the robot's EOAT to detect forces and moments, making the robot have a human-like haptic system. This helps the robot solve most of the required operations, such as assembly, material removal, and shape correction, polishing, and more.

The FANUC robot's haptic system consists of a force sensor, sensor adapter and sensor cable. In general, force sensors can really improve product quality when the object of use is fault location, polishing, construction or assembly. The tolerance of the haptic system is generally set to 2% of the robot's execution accuracy, and a consistent and repeatable environment needs to be created.

Force sensors typically have two different option settings: one is an "electronic skin" that covers the robot's arm, and the other is a remote or clamp- mounted sensor.

"Electronic skin" is covered on the robot's robot arm. With the information collected by the sensor, the robot can use the "tactile sense" to identify the surrounding situation, find the best travel route and control the moving direction, thus flexibly avoiding the forward encounter. Various obstacles to the arrival. The robotic arm that wraps around the "skin" is flexible and controls the amount of force when touching an object. By relying on this "electronic skin", the robot can not only sense the location and orientation of the object, but also obtain the hardness and strength of the object.

The remote or fixture sensor is attached to the end clamp of the robot or a position away from the robot. The reason why the sensor is installed outside the robot is mainly to reduce the weight of the end effector. The end of the robot is equipped with some sensing modules at the same time, and other work is given to the external structure, so that the robot can carry more different tools.

Second, the eye-visual system of industrial robots

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Vision sensors are the most important and complex types of sensors for robots, and they require the highest variety and intelligence of sensor information. Vision sensors include light source illumination, optical lenses, cameras (CCD, CMOS), image capture cards, and image processing software.

The iRvision vision sensing system is integrated on the FANUC robot, and even if the robot is in a remote position, the position of the workpiece can be measured by the vision system to direct the robot movement. The benefits of the vision system are not limited to this. It can help the robot to reduce the footprint, handle multiple operations at the same time, perform 2D or 3D multi-directional positioning recognition, reduce or eliminate the cost of the fixture.

Third, the secret of industrial robots "eyes are clear"

On the basis of having a haptic system and a vision system, to ensure that all sensors work well, the FANUC robot has a built-in sensor diagnostic system that uses commands to verify the operating status of each sensor. At the same time, the sensor is coordinated and the control performance is determined by several software functions. The real-time data displayed by the sensor is a clear reference for control parameter adjustment. This helps reduce overall teaching time while providing immediate feedback for production runs, making problem diagnosis easier.

At the same time, there is a “Teacher Program Auto Generate” application inside the FANUC robot to play back the visual monitoring and control of the contour and force of the workpiece. This procedure plays a very important role in maintaining consistent speed and propulsion when the robot's execution speed is low or reversed. It can be said that these two applications are the secret of the FANUC robot to truly achieve "eyes and hands".

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