Precautions for design of household energy display equipment

Design considerations

After long-term deployment of smart meters (automatic meter reading infrastructure), a two-way back-and-forth communication will be established between the utility and consumers. Consumers will obtain new sources of information directly through smart meters or through some form of energy gateway. This information will be fully utilized, and consumers will be signaled by means of communication with the home energy display device (IHD).

Household energy display devices enable utility customers to track their energy usage in charts or graphs based on the kilowatt hours used. It provides most types of energy-aware information that customers need: total energy consumption, real-time pricing, comparative analysis with general energy usage, etc.

IHD is actually a portable or wall-mounted display (suitable for new houses), which can communicate with practical meters (electricity, gas, water) and other household equipment-enabled communication methods (such as using ZigBee, wireless MBus) . When ZigBee is enabled, it can be set to act as a coordinator or router. These communication functions enable it to receive real-time customized information from utility companies regarding billing, energy prices, etc.

Common wireless communications are ZigBee (802.15.4 2.4GHz, commonly used in the United States) or wireless MBus (below 1GHz, more commonly used in Europe). This type of communication can be enabled through a system-on-chip (MCU and transceiver), or it can be formed by an MCU running another configuration file stack (connected to the connected radio transceiver), depending on the system topology. In both cases, the hardware and software involved can be provided by the Texas Instruments (TI) and TI Developer Network. High-end IHD can also use the currently available WIFI technology.

Various types of IHD will be different from each other due to optional graphics and information functions, which will naturally lead users to choose different embedded processors:

The cost-optimized IHD, such as MSP430, is usually used as the main processor: it is designed for ultra-long-lasting battery power, and it perfectly optimizes the flash memory, processing power, and low power consumption. Its integration allows easy connection with communication modules (using SPI's UART) or RF transceivers. Some members of this series of products can drive segmented LCDs through on-chip LCD drivers and provide on-chip analog-to-digital converters; they can be used to implement touch screen functions when a display with integrated controller is not used. In addition, various input / outputs can be programmed to implement button options. For solutions below 1GHz, the integration can be further optimized with CC430, combining MSP430 and transceivers below 1GHz in a low-power RF system-on-chip, without the need for an LCD segment controller. In order to obtain ultra-low standby current to maximize the life of lithium-ion batteries, TI provides LDO linear regulators, standby current as low as 0.5μA. For ultra-low input voltages, TI provides buck / boost DC / DC regulators, which are ideal for powering MCUs from batteries (including 1 to 3 alkaline, nickel-cadmium, or nickel-metal hydride batteries). From a battery with a voltage as low as 0.7V to power the MCU, coupled with high efficiency, these voltage regulators can extend the battery charging time, thereby increasing the application runtime.

Mid-range IHD-If higher processing power is required, and if developers are looking for more advanced graphics libraries, the TI Stellaris Cortex M3 microprocessor product line offers a large number of pin-to-pin memory options, interface options, and encryption solutions, It is your best choice. This series of products is equipped with an embedded graphics library, provided by Stellaris Ware Software. TI can provide optimized products to power Stellaris MCU systems based on system limitations such as limited cost or the highest efficiency requirements, including high input voltage regulators that can power MCUs using standard 24V DC lines, which are commonly used in residential doorbells and security system.

High-end IHD-In order to support more interactive options that require operating systems such as Linux, factors such as processing power and interfaces will lead users to choose an ARM9 Sitara microprocessor, such as AM1808. The MPU provides a fully integrated LCD controller unit and various software libraries for implementation. To achieve a certain power, these devices require a 1.2V regulated core, 1.8 V and 3.3V. In addition, the sequencing power supply structure is becoming a common configuration for high-performance DSP systems. USB ports can also be found on high-end displays that are mainly used for charging or uploading multimedia content. TI provides a complete low-cost, integrated power management solution for these types of high-power multi-rail systems.

Application programs are normally developed in the CPU`s RAM memory and executed from RAM memory. If additional program integrity is desired, or operation of the PLC without a battery is desired, an optional EEPROM or EPROM can be installed in a spare socket (labeled PROGRAM PROM) on the Model 311/313 backplane or in a socket on the model 331/341 CPU Module. EEPROMs can be written to and read from. EPROMs can be read when installed in the PLC; however, they must be written to using an external PROM programming device. Following is the procedure for adding or changing the EEPROM or EPROM. For clarity, the term PROM is used to refer to either an EEPROM or an EPROM. 1. Remove power from the system. 2. If 311/313  Remove all modules, including the power supply.  Remove the plastic cover. 3. If 331/341:  Remove CPU from backplane.  Remove front plate and bezel. Unsnap circuit board and remove from case. 4. If the socket is the type which has a screw near the top edge (some versions of 311/331), loosen screw at top of PROM socket (CCW twist;). 5. If present, remove old PROM from socket. Replace with or install new PROM. Orient the PROM so the end with a notch (the top of the prom) is toward the top edge of the backplane. Pin 1 of the prom is the first pin on the left as you move counter–clockwise from the notch. On the 311/331, correct installation orients the notch toward the screw.

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