Principle and application of ultrasonic sensor

The ultrasonic sensor is a sensor that is developed using the characteristics of ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic wave is a kind of mechanical wave with a vibration frequency higher than that of sound waves. It is generated by the vibration of the transducer wafer under the excitation of voltage. It has high frequency, short wavelength, small diffraction phenomenon, especially good directivity, and can be ray oriented. Characteristics such as communication. Ultrasonic waves have a great ability to penetrate liquids and solids, especially in sunlight-opaque solids, which can penetrate depths of several tens of meters. When an ultrasonic wave hits an impurity or an interface, it will produce a significant reflection to form a reflection into an echo, which can produce a Doppler effect when it hits a moving object. Therefore, ultrasonic testing is widely used in industrial, national defense, biomedical and other fields.
Ultrasound is used as a means of detection, and ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic waves must be generated. The device that performs this function is an ultrasonic sensor, which is conventionally called an ultrasonic transducer, or an ultrasonic probe.

Ultrasonic Sensor Composition The ultrasonic probe is mainly composed of a piezoelectric wafer that can emit both ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic waves. Small power ultrasound probes are used for detection. It has many different configurations, which can be divided into straight probe (longitudinal wave), oblique probe (transverse wave), surface wave probe (surface wave), Lamb wave probe (Lamp wave), dual probe (one probe reflection, one probe reception) Wait.

Performance Index The core of an ultrasonic probe is a piezoelectric wafer in its plastic jacket or metal jacket. There are many kinds of materials constituting the wafer. The size of the wafer, such as diameter and thickness, is also different, so the performance of each probe is different, we must know its performance before use. The main performance indicators of ultrasonic sensors include:

1. Working frequency The operating frequency is the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric wafer. When the frequency of the alternating voltage applied to both ends thereof is equal to the resonant frequency of the wafer, the energy output is the largest and the sensitivity is also the highest.
2, working temperature Because the Curie point of the piezoelectric material is generally high, especially the diagnostic ultrasonic probe uses less power, so the working temperature is relatively low, can work for a long time without failure. Medical ultrasound probes are relatively hot and require separate refrigeration equipment.
3. Sensitivity depends mainly on the fabrication of the wafer itself. The electromechanical coupling coefficient is large and the sensitivity is high; on the contrary, the sensitivity is low.

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